The countries surrounding the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) are largely lower to middle income economies, characterized by high population and below average level of human development. The waters of the BOBLME are highly productive and rich in biodiversity. The total marine capture fisheries production from the BOBLME has increased from 1,451,905 tonnes in 1979 to 4,170,138 tonnes in 2006, with an annual average growth rate of seven per cent. Despite being an important economic activity in the region, the fisheries sector is passing through a difficult stage. The sector is yet to stabilize and sustainability of the observed growth is questionable. The situation is further aggravated by a general lack of information on the state of fisheries resources as well as socio-economic attributes of fishers in the region. Given the scenario, it is difficult to predict the impact of a shock or stimulus such as changing climate. While gauging the impacts of the changing climate is a priority area in research and policy discussions, different scenarios have emerged from such discourses, which are at best conjectures. As a result, dealing with climate change requires flexibility and constant monitoring for timely action. Paper published in ‘Climate Exchange’, Tudor Rose Publication, 2012.